The “Dark Ages” of the police extended to 1900–with departments under the direction of politicians, with ill-equipped and poorly paid policemen, and with widespread corruption and brutality, particularly as part of ‘crime prevention’s deterrence and arrest aspects.
Despite gaming houses being unlawful, there were few prosecutions, mainly because the industry was protected largely by police corruption. Bookmakers regularly gave ‘payoffs’ to keep the police quiet. Much of this was associated with lynching. This began with Europeans’ arrival in the New World and sharply escalated in the 1880s. On record as part of a larger fight to restore “White Supremacy” in the post-Reconstruction South are so many Black People having been killed as to have clogged up rivers. However, the number of lynched and otherwise killed Colored Peoples will never be known since the overwhelming majority of cases were not reported or false reports of death were given. Nevertheless, the first generally accepted statistics on lynching begin in 1882, with 67 ex-Slaves, between 1882 and 1890 per year. It peaked with the imposition of Jim Crow Laws throughout the South in the 1890s—averaging 3 per week. Meanwhile lynching also became more racialized. Although mobs also lynched Whites, Mexicans, Asians and Native-Americans, Blacks constituted an ever-growing proportion of victims–44 % in the 1880s; 72 % in the 1890s; and 89 % between 1900 and 1909. The excuse for lynching Black Americans was always done to curb the “Black savage”—an Icon Image–and to protect the sanctity of White womanhood—despite anti-feminism acts by the evil White males. Both were justified extensions of the law. Opposition was spearheaded by the ex-Slave Ida B. Wells, a crusading journalist and teacher, who was enraged by lynching of three of her friends. In a Memphis newspaper her investigative report on lynching concluded that Blacks being lynched from sexually assaulting White women was a myth. Courageously she stated sexual liaisons between Black men and White women to be consensual. A White mob destroyed her newspaper offices and showered so many death threats, as for her to move to Chicago.
Meanwhile, during slavery and continuing in full force, an entire scenario regarding police “attack dogs” usage on Blacks set up a special “dog” atmosphere. As unspeakably evil and sadistic as Europeans were to the Enslaved in every conceivable manner, what can stand apart is the question as to what reverberations did the police “Negro attack dogs” have, not only on the Enslaved but also on their descendants, up to this day. It is known that Consequences out of actual dog attacks and vicarious experiences of fellow victims resulted in significant psychic traumas in practically all Blacks. In their fragile mental state, it did not take much for even threats of attack dogs to contribute to the aggravation of their apathy, frustration, and chronic rage. More fear was generated in Black people by ongoing Euro-American terrorism to maintain such mindsets. Also, throughout this scenario, it is probable that psychic trauma from “Negro attack dogs” transformed a few placid Blacks from peaceful over to hate-filled mindsets. This + compatible lifestyles meant these mindset patterns were culturally transmitted into their today’s Black American descendants. No doubt, along the way, layers of fear were added by direct experience or from vicarious empathy with neighbors.
Since boyhood, I have seen many Black people terribly afraid of the most gentle of dogs. But with irritable dogs, that fear has often stimulated those dogs to go on the attack. As a physician, I have treated some of those Black People for vicious dog bites while seeing how adversely affected patients were! Perhaps this scenario has accounted for problematic displays of simulated re-enactments, with dogs representing symbols of such psychic trauma. Meanwhile, during this period the term “Marginalization” was originated in 1903 by DuBois’ (Souls of Black Folks). He decries the sadness and wasted talent that segregation imposes from oppressing Blacks potential Talents. Thus, a “Marginal” Black American male is in a dilemma—a state of chronic mental conflict stemming from participation in two different, distinct groups–Black and White culture. This means that from birth to death many Blacks possess a “Double Consciousness” or feeling as though they are two people—the one defined, to which one might “live down” to + who one is.